Hormonal secretion was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay, endometrial dating and cellular expression and distribution of receptivity proteins were evaluated by quantitative immunohistochemistry.CC or r FSH treatments, modified the expression of epithelial receptivity markers, such as Glycodelin A, beta-catenin, CD166/ALCAM and IGF-1R, but not in stromal markers.A total of 172 patients who underwent hysteroscopic assessment of the endometrium and then became pregnant, was analysed retrospectively to explore the relationship between endoscopic findings and early phase pregnancy outcome after implantation.Histological examination of the endometrium and assay of serum progesterone and oestrogen were carried out simultaneously with hysteroscopy. Of the remaining 160 patients, 62 (38.8%) were classified endoscopically as having `good' mid-secretory endometrium and 98 (61.3%) as `poor', between one and four cycles prior to the conception cycle. A diagnosis of carcinoma is straightforward, but a clear and precise diagnosis of the various benign, yet abnormal pattens of endometrial development and bleeding can be a challenge. In addition, a clear understanding of the terminology that the pathologist uses to communicate diagnostic infor-mation to the clinician is critically important. These two layers occur only in endometrium lining the cavity of the uterus, not in the lining of the uterine (Fallopian) tubes: In the absence of progesterone, the arteries supplying blood to the functional layer constrict, so that cells in that layer become ischaemic and die, leading to menstruation.It is possible to identify the phase of the menstrual cycle by reference to either the ovarian cycle or the uterine cycle by observing histological differences at each phase—for example in the ovarian cycle: The first studies of flora colonizing the human endometrium were published in 2015, were on special populations, and were too small from which to generalize.
Of 160 pregnancies, 118 persisted successfully to live birth, but 42 ended in early pregnancy loss.The incidence of early abortion was significantly higher in the `poor' group (33.7%) than in the `good' group (14.5%) ( 0.05) but not for serum progesterone and oestradiol concentrations or progesterone:oestradiol ratio.In conclusion, our data suggest that the hysteroscopic appearance of the mid-secretory endometrium at this stage of the menstrual cycle is a better prognostic factor for pregnancy outcome than hormonal data. Several gynecologic pathology textbooks, such as Blaustein’s Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, 4th ed. We hope it will be useful to pathologists and gynecologists. The enthusiastic response we received from this endeavor prompted us to consider writing a practical text on the histologic interpretation of these speci-mens, which are commonly encountered in the surgical pathology labo-ratory but are given short shrift in standard texts.